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University of Phoenix Film Appreciation Worksheet

University of Phoenix Film Appreciation Worksheet

Film Appreciation Worksheet
HUM/150 Version 12.1
University of Phoenix Material
Film Appreciation
Write 250-350 word answers to each of the following 3 sections in the matrix (750 words minimum total
for the assignment). Fill out this worksheet, save it, and submit your completed worksheet. Make sure
you have saved it as a Microsoft Word .doc or .docx file.
NOTE that in all assignments, if you mention the title of a film, film titles must always be properly
formatted and cited as if they are appearing in an essay. See “Film Title and Citation Format” under
“Course Resources” 1 for reference.
Reflect on the information
garnered from Ch. 1 of Film
Art and the other resources
for the week and answer
the following question: Why
should we study film? What
is the value of studying
films? What do films teach
us? How do they
reflect/create cultural
Reflect on the information
garnered from Ch. 1 of Film
Art. What are the stages of
filmmaking and how does
each stage condition
become what we see on
the screen?
Describe film distribution
and promotion. How do
these two aspects influence
Copyright © 2016 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Film Appreciation Worksheet
HUM/150 Version 12.1
University of Phoenix Material
Film Appreciation
Write 250-350 word answers to each of the following 3 sections in the matrix (750 words minimum total
for the assignment). Fill out this worksheet, save it, and submit your completed worksheet. Make sure
you have saved it as a Microsoft Word .doc or .docx file.
NOTE that in all assignments, if you mention the title of a film, film titles must always be properly
formatted and cited as if they are appearing in an essay. See “Film Title and Citation Format” under
“Course Resources” 1 for reference.
Reflect on the information
garnered from Ch. 1 of Film
Art and the other resources
for the week and answer
the following question: Why
should we study film? What
is the value of studying
films? What do films teach
us? How do they
reflect/create cultural
Reflect on the information
garnered from Ch. 1 of Film
Art. What are the stages of
filmmaking and how does
each stage condition
become what we see on
the screen?
Describe film distribution
and promotion. How do
these two aspects influence
Copyright © 2016 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Film as Art: Creativity, Technology, and
otion pictures are so much a part of our lives that it’s hard to imagine a world without them. We enjoy them
in theaters, at home, in offices, in cars and buses, and on airplanes. We carry films with us in our laptops, tablets, and
cellphones. Press a button, and a machine conjures up movies for your pleasure.
Films communicate information and ideas, and they show us places and ways of life we might not otherwise
know. Important as these benefits are, though, something more is at stake. Films offer us ways of seeing and feeling
that we find deeply gratifying. They take us through experiences. The experiences are often driven by stories centering
on characters we come to care about, but a film might also develop an idea or explore visual qualities or sound textures.
Such things don’t happen by accident. Films are designed to create experiences for viewers. To gain an
understanding of film as an art, we should ask why a film is designed the way it is. When a scene frightens or excites
us, when an ending makes us laugh or cry, we can ask how the filmmakers have achieved those effects.
It helps to imagine that we’re filmmakers, too. Throughout this book, we’ll be asking you to put yourself in the
filmmaker’s shoes.
This shouldn’t be a great stretch. You’ve taken still photos with a camera or a mobile phone. Very likely you’ve
made some videos, perhaps just to record a moment in your life—a party, a wedding, your cat creeping into a paper
bag. And central to filmmaking is the act of choice. You may not have realized it at the moment, but every time you
framed a shot, shifted your position, told people not to blink, or tried to keep up with a dog chasing a Frisbee, you
were making choices.
You might take the next step and make a more ambitious, more controlled film. You might compile clips into a
YouTube video, or document your friend’s musical performance. Again, at every stage you make design decisions,
based on how you think this image or that sound will affect your viewers’ experience. What if you start your music
video with a black screen that gradually brightens as the music fades in? That will have a different effect than starting
it with a sudden cut to a bright screen and a blast of music.
At each instant, the filmmaker can’t avoid making creative decisions about how viewers will respond. Every
moviemaker is also a movie viewer, and the choices are considered from the standpoint of the end user. Filmmakers
constantly ask themselves: If I do this, as opposed to that, how will viewers react?
The menu of filmmaking choices has developed over time. Late in the 19th century, moving pictures emerged as
a public amusement. They succeeded because they spoke to the imaginative needs of a broad-based audience. All the
that emerged—telling fictional stories, recording actual events, animating objects or drawings, experimenting with
pure form—aimed to give viewers experiences they couldn’t get from other media. Men and women discovered that
they could use cinema to shape those experiences in various ways. Suppose we center the actors so they command the
frame space? Suppose we cut up a scene into shots taken from several angles? Suppose we move the camera to follow
the actors? Learning from one another, testing and refining new choices, filmmakers developed skills that became the
basis of the art form we have today.
Thinking like a filmmaker is all very well, you might say, if you want a career in the business. What if you just
want to enjoy movies? We think that you can appreciate films more fully if you’re aware of how creative choices
shape your experience. You’ve probably looked at some making-of bonuses on DVD versions of films you love, and
some of those supplements have increased your enjoyment. We enhance our appreciation of The Social
Network or Inception when we know something of the filmmakers’ behind-the-scenes discussion of character
motivation and specific line readings. We can always get more out of the films we see, and thinking about the
filmmakers’ choices helps us to understand why we respond as we do.
This is why we start our survey of film art by looking at the process of film production. Here we can see, in very
tangible ways, the sorts of options available to people working in this medium. In every chapter that follows, we
invoke what film artists have said about the ways they’ve chosen to solve creative problems.
Throughout this book, we focus on the two basic areas of choice and control in the art of film: form and
style. Form is the overall patterning of a film, the ways its parts work together to create specific effects (Chapters
2 and 3). Style involves the film’s use of cinematic techniques. Those techniques fall into four categories: mise-enscene, or the arrangement of people, places, and objects to be filmed (Chapter 4); cinematography, the use of cameras
and other machines to record images and sounds (Chapter 5); editing, the piecing together of individual shots (Chapter
6); and sound, the voices, effects, and music that blend on a film’s audio track (Chapter 7). After examining the various
techniques, Chapter 8 integrates them in an overview of film style.
In later chapters, we discuss how form and style differ among genres and other types of films (Chapters 9–10).
We consider how we can analyze films critically (Chapter 11) and how film form and style have changed across
history, offering filmmakers different sets of creative choices (Chapter 12). In all, we’ll see how through choice and
control, film artists create movies that entertain us, inform us, and engage our imaginations.
Art vs. Entertainment? Art vs. Business?
The term “art” might put some readers off. If cinema originated as a mass medium, should we even use the word? Are
Hollywood directors “artists”? Some people would say that the blockbusters playing at the multiplex are merely
“entertainment,” but films for a narrower public—perhaps independent films, or foreign-language fare, or
experimental works—are true art.
Usually the art/entertainment split rests on a value judgment: Art is serious and worthy; entertainment is
superficial. Yet things aren’t that simple. Many of the artistic resources of cinema were discovered by filmmakers
working for the general public. During the 1910s and 1920s, for instance, many filmmakers who simply aimed to be
entertaining pioneered new possibilities for film editing.
As for the matter of value, it’s clear that popular traditions can foster art of high quality. Shakespeare and Dickens
wrote for broad audiences. Much of the greatest 20th-century music, including jazz and the blues, was rooted in
popular traditions. Cinema is an art because it offers filmmakers ways to design experiences
for viewers, and those experiences can be valuable regardless of their pedigree. Films for audiences both small and
large belong to that very inclusive art we call film or cinema.
Sometimes, too, people consider film art to be opposed to film as a business. This split is related to the issue of
entertainment, since entertainment generally is sold to a mass audience. In most modern societies, however, no art
floats free from economic ties. Novels good, bad, and indifferent are published because publishers and authors expect
to sell them. Painters hope that collectors and museums will acquire their work. True, some artworks are funded
through subsidy or private donations, but that process, too, involves the artists in financial transactions.
Films are no different. Some movies are made in the hope that consumers will pay to see them. Others are funded
by patronage (an investor or organization wants to see the film made) or public money. (France, for instance,
generously subsidizes film projects.) Crowdfunding sites such as Kickstarter offer another alternative. You might
make short videos for YouTube or Vimeo at little cost, but if you hope to make a feature-length digital movie, you
face the problem of paying for it. If you can’t profit from your film, you may still hope that the project will lead to a
The crucial point is that considerations of business don’t necessarily make the artist less creative or the project
less worthwhile. Money can corrupt any activity, but it doesn’t have to. In Renaissance Italy, painters were
commissioned by the Catholic Church to illustrate events from the Bible. Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci worked
for hire, but we revere their artistry.
In this book we won’t assume that film art precludes entertainment. We won’t take the opposite position either,
claiming that only Hollywood mass-market movies are worth our attention. Similarly, we don’t think that film art rises
above commercial demands, but we also won’t assume that money rules everything. Any art form offers a vast range
of creative possibilities.
We examine an unusual problem and a director’s unusual solution in “Problems, problems, Wyler’s workaround.”
As an art, film offers experiences that viewers find worthwhile—diverting, provocative, puzzling, or rapturous.
But how do films do that? To answer that question, let’s go back a step and ask: Where do movies come from?
They come from three places. They come from the imagination and hard work of the filmmakers who create them.
They come from a complex set of machines that capture and transform images and sounds. And they come from
companies or individuals who pay for the filmmakers and the technology. This chapter examines the artistic,
technological, and business sides of how films come into being.
Creative Decisions in Filmmaking
In Day for Night, French filmmaker François Truffaut plays a director making a movie called Meet Pamela. Crew
members bring set designs, wigs, cars, and prop pistols to him, and we hear his voice telling us his thoughts: “What
is a director? A director is someone who is asked questions about everything.”
Making a film can be seen as a long process of decision making, not just by the director but by all the specialists
who work on the production team. Screenwriters, producers, directors, performers, and technicians are constantly
solving problems and making choices. A great many of those decisions affect what we see and hear on the screen.
There are business choices about the budget, marketing, distribution, and payments. Connected to those choices are
the artistic ones. What lighting will enhance the atmosphere of a love scene? Given the kind of story being told, would
it be better to let the audience know what the central character is thinking or to keep her enigmatic? When a scene
opens, what is the most economical way of letting the audience identify the time and place? We can see how decisions
shape the process by looking in more detail at a single production.
To See into the Night in Collateral
Michael Mann’s Collateral, released in 2004, is a visually striking psychological thriller set in Los Angeles in a single
night. The mysterious Vincent (Tom Cruise) hires a cab driver, Max (Jamie Foxx), to drive him to several
appointments. When Max learns that Vincent is a hired killer, he struggles to break their bargain and escape. But
Vincent forces him to carry on as a getaway driver. In the course of the evening, the two men spar verbally and move
toward a climactic chase and confrontation.
Mann and his crew made thousands of decisions during the making of Collateral. Here we look at five important
choices: one that influenced the film’s form and one each for our four categories of mise-en-scene, cinematography,
editing, and sound. Several of these decisions involved new technologies that became standard production tools.
Scriptwriter Stuart Beattie originally set Collateral in New York City. In the screenplay, Max was a loser, hiding
from the world in his cab and getting little out of life. Vincent was to goad him about his failures until Max had finally
had enough and stood up to him. Once Mann came on board as director, he altered the plot in several ways. The setting
became Los Angeles. Max became less a loser and more a laid-back, intelligent man content to observe the world
from behind a steering wheel, endlessly delaying his plans to start his own limousine service. This more appealing
Max becomes our point-of-view figure for most of the film. For example, we don’t see the first murder but stay with
Max in the cab until the shocking moment when a body hurtles down onto his cab roof. The story largely consists of
Max’s conflict with Vincent, so Mann’s decision to change Max’s traits altered their confrontations as well. In the
finished film, moments of reluctant mutual respect and even hints of friendship complicate the men’s relationship.
Such decisions as these reshaped the film’s overall narrative form.
The switch to Los Angeles profoundly affected the film’s style. For Mann, one of the attractions was that this tale
of randomly crossing destinies took place almost entirely at night, from 6:04 P.M. to 4:20 A.M. He wanted to portray
the atmospheric Los Angeles night, where haze and cloud cover reflect the city’s lights back to the vast grid of streets.
According to cinematographer Paul Cameron, “The goal was to make the L.A. night as much of a character in the
story as Vincent and Max were.”
This was a major decision that created the film’s look. Mann was determined not to use more artificial light than
was absolutely necessary. He relied to a considerable degree on street lights, neon signs, vehicle headlights, and other
sources in the locations where filming took place. To achieve an eerie radiance, his team came up with a cutting-edge
combination of tools.
Digital Cinematography Certain choices about photographing Collateral were central to its final look and also
dictated many other decisions. For example, at that time Hollywood productions employed cameras loaded with rolls
of photographic film. Night scenes were shot using large banks of specialized spot- and floodlights. If the light was
too weak, dark areas would tend to go a uniform black.
Mann and his cinematographers decided to shoot portions of Collateral on recently developed high-definition
(HD) digital cameras. Those cameras could shoot on location with little or no light added to the scene (1.1). They
could also capture the distinctive night glow of Los Angeles. As Mann put it, “Film doesn’t record what our eyes can
see at night. That’s why I moved into shooting digital video in high definition—to see into the night, to see everything
the naked eye can see and more. You see this moody landscape with hills and trees and strange light patterns. I wanted
that to be the world that Vincent and Max are moving through.”
Cinematographer Dion Beebe enthused, “The format’s strong point is its incredible sensitivity to light. We were
able to shoot Los Angeles at night and actually see silhouettes of palm trees against the night sky, which was very
exciting” (1.2). In a particularly dark scene at the climax, the characters become visible only as black shapes outlined
by the myriad lights behind them (1.3). The suspense is heightened as we strain to see the figures.
Custom-Made Lights Though digital cameras could pick up a great deal in dark situations, the audience needed to
see the faces of the actors clearly. Much of the action takes place inside the taxi as Max and Vincent ride and talk. The
actors’ faces had to be lit, but the filmmakers wanted to avoid the sense that there was artificial light in the cab.
To create a soft, diffuse light, the filmmakers tried an innovative approach: electroluminescent display (ELD)
panels. The technology had been used in digital watches and cellphones, but it had never been employed in filming.
Flexible plastic panels of various sizes were custom made, all with Velcro backings that would stick to the seats and
ceiling of the cab (1.4, 1.5). These ELD panels could then be turned on in various combinations. Although they look
bright in Figure 1.5, the effect on the screen was a soft glow on the actors. In a shot like Figure 1.6, we might simply
take it for granted that the light coming through the windows and the glow of the dashboard panel are all that shines
on the characters. Such dim illumination on the faces allows the lights visible through the windows to be brighter than
they are, helping to keeping the city “as much of a character in the story as Vincent and Max were.”
Here’s a case where an artistic decision led to new technology. Since Collateral was made, a similar lighting
technology, the light-emitting diode (LED) has become common in flashlights, auto tail lights, scoreboard displays,
and computer monitors. Specially designed LED units have become central to film production. Mann’s team solved a
problem in mise-en-scene, and a new option was added to the menu available to other filmmakers.
Seamless Editing Collateral contains several dynamic action scenes, including a spectacular car crash. The plan
was for a cab going nearly 60 miles per hour to flip, then bounce and roll several times before coming to rest upside
down. If we put ourselves in the filmmakers’ place, we can imagine their options about how to show the crash.
Mann’s team could have put the camera in a single spot and swiveled it to follow the car rolling past. That might
have been a good idea if the scene showed us the crash through the eyes of an onlooker whose head turns to watch it.
But there is no character witnessing the crash.
The filmmakers decided to generate excitement by showing several shots of the car rolling, each taken from a
different point along the trajectory of the crash. One option would have been to use several cabs and execute numerous
similar crashes, each time filmed by a single camera that would be moved between crashes from place to place to
record the action from a new vantage point. Such a procedure would have been very expensive, however, and no two
crashes would have taken place in exactly the same way. Splicing together shots from each crash might have created
discrepancies in the car’s position, resulting in poor “matches on action,” as we’ll term this technique in Chapter 6.
Instead, the team settled on a technique commonly used for big action scenes. Along the cab’s path were stationed
multiple cameras, all filming at once (1.7). The economic benefits were that only one car had to be crashed and the
high expense of keeping many crew members working on retakes was reduced. Artistically, the resulting footage
allowed the editing team to choose portions of many shots and splice them together in precise ways (1.8, 1.9). The
result is an exciting stream of shots, each taken from farther along the taxi’s path.
Music in Movements Composers are fond of saying that their music for a film should serve the story so well that
the audience doesn’t notice it. For Collateral, Mann wanted James Newton Howard to score the climax so as to not
build up excitement too quickly. According to Howard, “Michael was very clear about the climax taking place in three
movements.” “Movements” as a term is usually applied to the parts of a symphony, a concerto, or a sonata. Thus the
idea was that the score for this last part of the film should play a major role in shaping the progression and rhythm of
the action.
At the climax, Vincent is trying to kill a character who is important to Max, while Max tries frantically to save
both himself and the other character. Howard and Mann called the first musical movement “The Race to Warn,” since
Vincent gets ahead of Max in running to the building where the potential victim is located. Despite the fact that both
men are running and the situation is suspenseful, Howard avoids rapid rhythms. He begins with long-held string chords
over a deep, rumbling sound, then adds sustained brass chords with a strong beat accompanying them. The music is
dynamic but doesn’t reach a high pitch of excitement.
The second movement, “The Cat and Mouse,” accompanies Vincent getting into the building, turning off the
electricity, and stalking his victim in near darkness (1.3). Again, the chords are slow, with ominous undertones,
dissonant glides, and, at a few points, fast, eerie high-string figures as Vincent nears his goal. During the most
suspenseful moments in the scene, when Vincent and his prey are in the darkened room, strings and soft, clicking
percussion accompany their cautious, hesitant movements.
Finally, there is a swift chase sequence, and here Howard’s score is louder and faster, with driving tympani in
very quick rhythm as the danger grows. Once the chase tapers off, the percussion ends, and slow, low strings
accompany the final quiet shots.
These decisions and many others affect our experience of Collateral. Thanks to the digital imagery and innovative
lighting, we have a sense of characters moving through an eerie, unfamiliar-looking world. The editing of the crash
allows the taxi to come hurtling toward the camera several times. The music accompanying the fast-chase/slowstalking/fast-chase climax helps heighten the suspense and build the excitement. Creative decision making is central
to every film, and Collateral
stands out for making several unusual choices. Collateral’s innovative visual style showed later filmmakers what
digital tools could do. Director Tony Scott replicated the HD sheen of the film in his Déjà vu. Cinematographer Robert
Elswit’s half-beautiful, half-creepy images for Nightcrawler (1.10) provide a similar look into the Los Angeles night.
Filmmaking relies on technology and financing. First, filmmakers need fairly complicated machines. Anyone with a
pen and paper can write a novel, and a talented kid with a guitar can become a musician. Movies demand much more.
Even the simplest home video camera is based on fiendishly complex technology. A major film involves elaborate
cameras, lighting equipment, multitrack sound-mixing studios, sophisticated laboratories, and computer-generated
special effects.
Partly because of the technology, making a movie also involves businesses. Companies manufacture the
equipment, other companies provide funding for the film, still others distribute it, and finally theaters and other venues
present the result to an audience. In the rest of this chapter, we consider how these two sides of making movies—
technology and business—shape film as an art.
Illusion Machines
Moving-image media such as film and video couldn’t exist if human vision were perfect. Our eyes are very sensitive,
but they can be tricked. As anyone who has paused a DVD knows, a film consists of a series of frames, or still pictures.
Yet we don’t perceive the separate frames. Instead, we see continuous light and movement. What creates this
For a long time people thought that the effect results from “persistence of vision,” the tendency of an image to
linger briefly on our retina. Yet if this were the cause, we’d see a bewildering blur of superimposed stills instead of
smooth action. At present, researchers believe that two psychological processes are involved in cinematic motion:
critical flicker fusion and apparent motion.
If you flash a light faster and faster, at a certain point (around 50 flashes per second), you see not a pulsating light
but a continuous beam. A film is usually shot and projected at 24 still frames per second. The projector shutter breaks
the light beam once as a new image is slid into place and once while it is held in place. Thus each
frame is actually projected on the screen twice. This raises the number of flashes to 48, the threshold of what is
called critical flicker fusion. Early silent films were shot at a lower rate (often 16 or 20 images per second), and
projectors broke the beam only once per image. The picture had a pronounced flicker—hence an early slang term for
movies, “flickers,” which survives today when people call a film a “flick.”
Apparent motion is a second factor in creating cinema’s illusion. If a visual display is changed rapidly enough,
our eye can be fooled into seeing movement. Neon advertising signs often seem to show a thrusting arrow, but that
illusion is created simply by static lights flashing on and off at a particular rate. Certain cells in our eyes and brain are
devoted to analyzing motion, brightness, and edges. Any stimulus presenting changes in those features tricks those
cells into sending the wrong message.
Apparent motion and critical flicker fusion are quirks in our visual system, and technology can exploit those
quirks to produce illusions. Some moving-image machines predate the invention of film (1.11, 1.12). Film as we know
it came into being when photographic images were first imprinted on strips of flexible celluloid.
Making Films with Photographic Film
Until the 2000s, cinema was almost entirely a photochemical medium. Most of the movies we use as examples in this
book were shot on photographic film, as were nearly all the films that you watch on DVD or streaming. Although
digital production has become common, some directors and cinematographers still prefer photochemical media. So
we’ll look first at motion pictures shot on film.
Physically, a photographically based film is a ribbon of still images, each one slightly different from its mates.
That ribbon starts life as unexposed film stock in a camera. Eventually the finished movie is another strip of film run
through a projector. Both the camera and the projector move the film strip one frame at a time past a light source. For
a fraction of a second, the image is held in place before the next one replaces it. In a camera, the lens gathers light
from the scene photographed, while a projector uses a light source to cast the images on the screen. In a sense, the
projector is just an inverted camera (1.13, 1.14).
In filming, the most common shooting rate is 24 frames per second (fps), and in projection the same rate is usually
maintained. In the 35mm format, the film whizzes through the projector at 90 feet per minute, meaning that a twohour feature will consist of about two miles of film.
The film strip that emerges from the camera is usually a negative. That is, its colors and light values are the
opposite of those in the original scene. For the images to be projected, a positive print must be made. This is done on
another machine, the printer, which duplicates or modifies the footage from the camera. Like a projector, the printer
controls the passage of light through film—in this case, a negative. Like a camera, it focuses light to form an image—
in this case, on the unexposed roll of film. Although the filmmaker can create nonphotographic images on the film
strip by drawing, painting, or scratching, most filmmakers in the predigital era have relied on the camera, the printer,
and other photographic technology.
If you were to handle the film that runs through these machines, you’d notice several things. One side is much
shinier than the other. Motion picture film consists of a transparent plastic base (the shiny side), which supports
an emulsion, layers of gelatin containing light-sensitive materials. On a black-and-white film strip, the emulsion
contains grains of silver halide. Color film emulsion adds layers of chemical dyes that react with the silver halide
components. In both cases, billions of microscopic particles form clusters of light, dark, and color corresponding to
the scene photographed.
What enables film to run through a camera, a printer, and a projector? The strip is perforated along both edges,
so that small teeth (called sprockets) in the machines can seize the perforations (sprocket holes) and pull the film at a
uniform rate and smoothness. The strip also reserves space for a sound track.
The size and placement of the perforations and the area occupied by the sound track have been standardized
around the world. So, too, has the width of the film strip, which is called the gauge and is measured in millimeters.
For most of cinema history, commercial theaters used 35mm film, but other gauges also have been standardized
internationally: Super 8mm, 16mm, and 70mm (1.15–1.19).
Usually image quality increases with the width of the film because the greater picture area gives the images better
definition and detail. All other things being equal, 35mm provides significantly better picture quality than 16mm, and
70mm is superior to both. The finest photographic quality currently available for public screenings is that offered by
the Imax system (1.20).
With the rise of digital filmmaking, 16mm has declined as an amateur gauge. If you take an introductory
production course, you are more likely to shoot with a digital camera than a 16mm one. Yet a higher-quality version
of the gauge, Super 16mm, still gets used in commercial films seeking to economize or to achieve a “documentary
look.” Recent films utilizing Super 16mm include The Wrestler, The Hurt Locker, Black Swan, and Moonrise
Kingdom. The comedy The World’s End combined 35mm and regular 16mm. Super 8 film is still occasionally used
in professional production, usually to simulate home movies or television images; Super 8 used both Super 16 and
Super 8 to present the amateur footage shot by its young protagonists. Imax and other cameras employing 65mm film
have been used for fiction films, including some scenes in The Dark Knight, Inception, Mission Impossible: Ghost
Protocol, Gravity, and Interstellar.
The sound track runs along the side of the film strip. Magnetic tracks, consisting of magnetic tape running along
the film strip (1.19), have virtually vanished. Most films today have an optical sound track, which encodes sonic
information in the form of patches of light and dark running along the frames. During production, electrical impulses
from a microphone are translated into pulsations of light, which are photographically inscribed on the moving film
strip. When the film is projected, the optical track produces varying intensities of light that are translated back into
electrical impulses and then into sound waves. The optical sound track of 16mm
Filmmaking with Digital Media
Digital information technology gave filmmakers a set of new tools. Computers first came into use in editing and in
special-effects processes, and eventually digital shooting and projection became

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